East meets West: Krishna and Seneca and Comparative Ethics

Ashwini Mokashi”s Sapiens and Sthitaprajna: A Comparative Study in Seneca’s Stoicism and the Bhagavadgita (hereafter Gita), is an important addition to the growing list of publications of comparative ethics based on ancient wisdom texts. In contrasting Seneca’s writings with the text of the Gita, Mokashi makes an important contribution to the field of developing ethics in a global context. Such a dialogue can elucidate overlapping virtues despite great cultural and geographic variation showing that people from dissimilar cultures, follow a different ordering of values rather than hold differing values (1). In the Gita section of the Hindu epic, Mahabharata, two factions of the same family facing off with one another on the battlefield is put on “pause,” while the epic’s protagonist the warrior and great archer Arjuna, has an existential crisis. He confides his fears to his charioteer, Krishna, that he knows by day’s end all the casualties will be that of his own kin. Unbeknownst to Arjuna, Krishna, is actually the avatar of the Hindu God Vishnu, who walks Arjuna through the nature of life and its disciplines of knowledge, action and devotion that are not always fixed entities, but require, at times, expanding and re-ordering. The Sthitaprajna is the practitioner who has succeeded in conquering the “inner battlefield” of the warring self to reach a selfhood of moral clarity that is reflected in his actions conducted with equanimity and non-attachment. Sapere (v.), although negatively inserted into the Enlightenment war cry, to this day remains anchored in Greek, Jewish, Christian thought as the thread linking successive sources of Europe’s spiritual tradition of being “wise” or “knowing.” Morality was preserved in the lives of a Sapiens who singularly could make a great difference to the world by exercising his moral power so much so that the wise person becomes unconquerable in the world through understanding the laws of nature and following the Stoic ethical principles [p. 57]. Sapiens and Sthitaprajna advances the conversation with the classics at a time of waning general humanities curriculum. As, W. T. De Bary, author of The Great Civilized Conversation wrote, no other approach than studying the classics and the perennial questions will give us a clearer sense of direction for value judgments that have been informed by the experience of the best minds of the past and the best way to do this is to have engaged them in conversation (2).
(1) Rosemont Jr., Henry. (2015). Against Individualism: A Confucian Rethinking of the Foundations of Morality, Politics, Family, and Religion. Lexington Books. London. Pg. 21
(2) http://www.neh.gov/about/awards/national-humanities-medals/william-theodore-de-bary
Purchase at: https://www.amazon.com/Sapiens-Sthitaprajna-Ashwini-Mokashi/dp/8124609632/ref=sr_1_1?keywords=ashwini+mokashi&qid=1572275341&s=books&sr=1-1

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Greta Thunberg Rails UN Leaders for their Inaction on Climate Change

Teenage climate change activist Greta Thunberg on Monday opened the United Nations Climate Action Summit with an angry condemnation of world leaders for failing to take strong measures to combat climate change.

Thunberg, visibly emotional, said in shaky but stern remarks at the opening of the summit that the generations that have polluted the most have burdened her and her generation with the extreme impacts of climate change.

“This is all wrong. I shouldn’t be up here. I should be back in school on the other side of the ocean yet you all come to us young people for hope. How dare you,” she said.

“You have stolen my dreams and my childhood with your empty words,” Thunberg said.

Days after millions of young people took to the streets worldwide to demand emergency action on climate change, leaders gathered for the annual United Nations General Assembly were to try to inject fresh momentum into stalling efforts to curb carbon emissions.




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In Response to Forbes’ 2018 Innovative Leaders List- A Book Review*

The Sustainable Enterprise Fieldbook TSEF could not be timelier for its process-driven action plans and groundbreaking sustainability frameworks. This week Forbes published its 2018 list of the most creative business minds, naming 99 men and only ONE woman, Ross Stores CEO Barbara Rentler, setting off a Twitter storm that found editor, Randall Lane, with egg on his face. Lane admitted the process was ‘flawed’ and vowed to bring together a task force to reassess its selection rubric used by BYU and INSEAD professors. Full disclosure, I am a contributor to the TSEF mental models chapter of the first and second editions.  It also means I witnessed a germ of an idea come into its own and materialize an action plan for a more equitable human flourishing buoyed by sustainable practices. The vision is largely owed to lead editor, Jeana Wirtenberg, who attracted enormous talent from all sectors to contribute to discussions, round tables and chapters that materialized into a book. Yet Jeana and her leadership team saw far beyond the book in envisioning a “living fieldbook” that would not only be fodder for business student papers and discussions but also be continuously updated with new research and solutions to new emerging challenges. A recent example is a pilot program spearheaded by Professor Wirtenberg at Rutgers Institute for Corporate Social innovation, RICSI, using TSEF as it textbook as a guide for “integrating a company’s full range of capabilities and assets within innovative business models to achieve positive societal impact while advancing success and sustainability of the enterprise.” Students could contribute valuable input to the Forbes task force members through an in-depth study of the chapter on metrics that can move corporations beyond tired models and fads by replacing them with more innovative, futuristic measures instead. At a time of the year, when Americans reflect on the tragedy of 911 eighteen years ago a finding of the 911 Commission that has stood out for me are missed cues leading up to the attacks that the commission attributed to the failure of the imagination. It is the hope of TSEF contributors to provide professors and students with new tools and techniques to create a more sustainable world with visionary CEOs imaginatively leading the charge by attracting and harnessing the diverse talents of its rich human capital in the important world of creating an equitable flourishing world for all.

*A version of this review is posted on Amazon.






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Democracy’s Island Beacons—Hong Kong and Puerto Rico

While we here in the United States are bombarded daily with smoke screens of a propped up economy and innumerable divisive tactics, two island cultures are putting up the good fight for democracy. Puerto Ricans demonstrated against a corrupt government refusing to implode on itself that must have greatly disappointed real-estate developers standing in the wings. The shadow of the Tiananmen Square massacre looms large over the Hong Kong protestors who knowingly are putting their lives on the line in the island’s fight to preserve the democratic autonomy promised it in its handover to China by Britain.

In the past, islands have been the preservers of culture such as the persistent activity of the monks in Ireland who laboriously copied illuminated manuscripts by hand beginning with the Book of Durrow in the seventh century when Europe was in the Dark Ages, that would be followed by other Medieval Christian artworks such as Carolingan and Byzantine illuminated manuscripts in due course. When Buddhism was persecuted on the Asian mainland in the ninth century, Japan sheltered Buddhist monks and preserved the artifacts of its religion becoming a nation of temples and virtual living museum of Buddhist sutras and art.

Meanwhile here at home, the endangered species act has been lifted so that endangered species could thrive under its protective laws: in my state of New Jersey, no longer sheltering the bald eagle’s nest will give way to the development of farmland for yet another  Amazon warehouse. And climate change be damned with the free-for-all gas and oil drilling taking place on public lands. The land of Lady Liberty who has greeted the downtrodden to her shores in the past harboring religious freedom and asylum seekers now is witness to children being separated from the arms of their parents and put into cages—Walls, Walls, Walls.

Unfortunately, we in the states are fed a daily diet of distractions as headliners taking the focus off of ongoing activities that have been eroding democracy before our very eyes: gerrymandering, voting poll purges, voter suppression, Russian election interference, packing of the federal and supreme courts (intentionally not capitalized), and downright obfuscating the wheels of legislation, Muslim bans, vile attacks on elected officials of color, undocumented workers’ raids (who hired them?) in a nation that has permitted the NRA’s buyout of politicians who are now all implicated in the mass murders of innocent babies, children, adults, unarmed black men, women etc. Ironically, these same politicians are the loudest voices in current nationwide “trigger” laws (note the irony) all in the name of the “sanctity” of human life.

The choice is ours: either we continue to be entertained by our many distractions—streaming TV shows, stock market earnings, buying into claims of “fake news” etc. or, we can be witness to the demise of global human rights and the lives of those who will be punished, or murdered,  for their “crime” of hope and aspiration in the American dream. Are these democracy’s beacons or are they its last gasps?

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Nurturing a Global Consciousness

I will be attending the 2019 GlobalMindED Conference June 5-7, Denver CO. “Collaboration is at the heart of the GlobalMindED conference – among educators, entrepreneurs and business leaders, policymakers in government and nonprofits, and first-generation college students themselves.” https://globalminded.org. In reviewing my research I came across the following unpublished article written in 2004:

Books contain capital,” wrote Thomas Jefferson to James Madison in 1821. It took more than 175 years, but we are beginning to see what he meant. World economies have shifted from those focused on industrial productions to those centered not only on knowledge, but also creativity. (Global Literacies, 355) In the 21st century, creativity will drive commerce, employment, trade the way natural resources and industries have influenced economies and societies in the past. (Bradford, 12)

At the same time, two seemingly contradictory forces in operation observed at the dawn of the 21st century are the interdependence or interconnectedness of the global village, as well as a strong desire for individual roots. In the global village there is not a single global culture; instead, there are various global cultures, with their own languages, codes and world-views. (Bradford, 343)

If community can be defined “by modes of participation and engagement, through local gatherings in a specific physical space or through the electronic media of the World Wide Web, then though there is not a single global culture,”(Pitman, 26) there is a New World Community. With the meeting of world cultures together in real time, can the wealthier segments continue to ignore the current trend of increasing inequality? As one educator observed, the very education students and their families aspire for in order to get good jobs and succeed in society, is also an essential contributing element to the dilemma of globalization. That is, the operating dynamic that is rewarding a few while miring the majority in killing poverty, greater and greater inequality, social unrest and ecological degradation. Preparing students—even poor or minority students on scholarship—to take their places in most of society’s major institutions and to succeed in carrying them forward in their current directions will actually increase economic and social injustice. (Hug, 16)

An important question for the Globalminded attendees: as educators in the 21st century, how will we meet the challenge to not only prepare our students for the borderless e-marketplace, but more importantly instruct on humanity, both of the individual and that of community, that is vital in forming a “global consciousness?”

Bradford, GiGi, Gray, Michael and Wallach, Glenn, eds. The Politics of Culture: Policy Perspectives for Individuals, Institutions and Communities. New York: The New Press, 2000.
Hug, James E. “Educating for Justice: Any University’s Major Mission is to Work for Global Transformation,” in America, Vol. 182 No. 18, Whole No. 4488, May 20, 2000, pp. 16-22.
Mestenhauser, J. A. and Ellingboe B. (Eds.). “Portraits of International Curriculum: An Uncommon Multidimensional Perspective,” in Reforming Higher Education Curriculum: Internationalizing our Campuses. Phoenix: American Council on Education/Oryx, 1997.
Piro, Joseph. “School-Museum Collaboration: A Passage to Asian Study.” Education About ASIA. Volume 2, Number 2, Fall 1997. http://www.aasianst.org/EAA/piro.htm.
Pitman, Bonnie. “Muses, Museums, and Memories,” in Daedalus, Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Summer, 1999. Pp. 1-30.
Rosen, Robert et al. Global Literacies: Lessons on Business Leadership and National Cultures. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

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Contemplating the Mueller Report: To Impeach or Not To Impeach

The constitution may be vague on what qualifies as “High crimes and misdemeanors” but the Founders conceived of leadership, at the very least as aspirational; pursued by one who cultivates unceasingly his or her moral and ethical values. Ben Jonson, regarded as one of the major dramatists and poets of the seventeenth century, had this to say on truth:

Truth is man’s proper good and the only immortal thing was given to our mortality to use. No good Christian or ethnic, if he be honest, can miss it; no statesman or patriot should. For without truth all the actions of mankind are craft, malice, or what you will rather than wisdom. Homer says he hates him worse than hell mouth that utters one thing with his tongue and keeps another in his breast. Which high expression was grounded on divine reason; for a lying mouth is a stinking pit, and murders with the contagion it vents. Beside, nothing is lasting that is feigned; it will have another face than it had, ere long. As Euripides said, “No lie ever grows old.”

~Ben Jonson (1838). “The Works of Ben Jonson”, p.746

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Museum Planner Gail Lord and Soft Power

Gail Lord is sparking a revolution with her sights set on museums and cities. In her recent webinar “Museums, Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy in a Changing World,” while acknowledging that some museums began as displays of the spoils of war and conquest, today’s museums have evolved to preserve and care for artifacts of artistic, cultural, historical or scientific importance (1). And because of their high level of professionalism, museums also play an important educational role in interpreting and exhibiting collections for their publics—which may account for the fact that museums are looked to by the general public as one of the few institutions of trustworthiness.

With an eye to the creative economy, Lord notes the trend of an urban uptick, with 54% of the population now in cities. Despite not being nation states, cities produce 80% of the world’s GDP and can exert substantial influence of soft power through shared persuasion and agenda setting.

Gail Lord sees museums, particularly small and mid-size museums, ideally positioned as “cultural diplomats of soft power”’ in their communities, as agents of “power diffusion” in a “shared economy” that thrives on collaborating and listening.

Lord’s call for soft power is echoed in the late Malcolm McIntosh’s 2015 book Thinking the Twenty-first Century: Ideas for a new Political Economy, a concept derived from the 2012 UN report that recognizes that “one individual is merely a part of a greater whole, part human, part Earthly, part cosmic” [pg.18] (2). For McIntosh an essential strand is to realize that a political economy of human flourishing will necessitate the “rise of feminization of decision-making and governance that fundamentally hinges on empathy, sociability, sharing and group work as much it does on competition, aggression and masculinity” [20] (3).

Contrary to current news headlines and the occasional authoritarian chest thumping, McIntosh is reassuring in pointing to evidence that the world has been getting more peaceful since 1945. What McIntosh identifies as one of the greatest practical and political challenges for immediate attention is the development of global citizenship allied to local living and changing the social systems and institutions that run our lives (ibid). Gail Lord can provide just the right resource.

In Cities, Museums, and Soft Power, Lord and co-editor Ngaire Blankenberg, both respected museum planners, have brought together fourteen of the world’s leading museum and cultural experts. These experts explore examples from six continents of the many facets of soft power in museums: how they amplify civic discourse, accelerate cultural change, and contribute to contextual intelligence among the great diversity of city dwellers, visitors and policy makers. The authors appeal to city governments to embrace museums, which so often are the signifiers of their cities, increasing real estate values while attracting investment, tourists and creative workers. The book also includes a tool for museums and cities, outlining 32 ways to institute and embrace soft power (2).

Gail Lord is a force to be reckoned with—as the saying goes, “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed, citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.” (Margaret Mead)

(1) July 25, 2018. ICOM International Committee for exhibit exchange (ICEE) Webinar Series is made possible in part by a grant from the International Council of Museum (ICOM)

(2) Lord Cultural Resources: Soft Power: https://www.lord.ca/resources/tools/topic/soft-power/1/14

(3) McIntosh, Malcolm. 2015. Thinking the Twenty­First Century: Ideas for the New Political Economy. Greenleaf Publishing.


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Homage to Henry Rosemont, Jr. Confucian scholar, mentor and friend


Anyone who knew Henry Rosemont, Jr., who passed away July 2, 2017, saw in him a standard bearer for Confucian Role Ethics as husband, father, grandfather as well as China scholar, teacher, mentor and friend. Henry placed a particular emphasis on the interactions of the role-bearers, not on their individual qualities. There are those said to be kind; role-bearing benefactors perform kindly acts towards and with beneficiaries: individuals are said to be brave, role-bearers perform brave acts and so on. (Rosemont, 2105, p. 96). I was such a beneficiary from the very first occasion I met Henry and JoAnn a decade ago in NYC (China House Institute) where he gave a talk on Confucius. I asked him for a resource and he gave me his card and from that point on we corresponded regularly.

Reacting to the rise of nativism and an ever-widening gap between the “haves” and the “have nots,” Henry published Against Individualism: A Confucian Rethinking of the Foundations of Morality, Politics, Family, and Religion in 2015. With a presidential election hanging in the balance, I wrote in my review that Against Individualism could not be more timely reading for addressing the Herculean economic, social, political, and environmental challenges ahead (pg.116). Just as the unchecked free market has spawned “too big to fail–too big to jail” corporate behemoths that brought about the global financial crisis, the “invisible hand” myth is seeing also to the unraveling of social justice. Despite US corporate revenues at their highest point in 40 years, increased profit margins have only translated to greater income inequality.

To help us think in new ways about these challenges, philosopher and China scholar Rosemont holds up an old model for re-ordering our society: the Confucian “Way of Humankind” (pg. 93). In contrast to the free market’s emphasis on the rational autonomous individual, the Confucian Way foregrounds the family.

Granted Confucius (Latinized honorific name ”’ K’ng F’z’, literally “Master Kong”) could not have conceived of a concept such as “democracy” in the China of 2500 years ago, but his enduring vision of wise governance guided by sage administrators rested solidly upon the foundation of the people—all the people. Confucius did not believe that government should control the people by meting out punishments: people should and could control themselves. But he understood that such self-regulation takes effort. If human beings did not attend to their own personal cultivation with diligence, then constraints were necessary to rein in greed and other passions.

For Rosemont, the essence of Confucian self-cultivation comes through grounding our feelings and deepening our intuitions within the social milieu of rituals, customs, traditions, and manners (pg. 113, n# 19). Personal cultivation involves constant re-defining of what is means to be fully human. That is best measured through our interactions with others, dynamically relating as “role-bearers” to members of one’s family, community, city, state, nation and world. Such an undertaking is a continuously evolving process of life-long learning and growing and manifesting all that goes into being human. It is an “art” that is marked by respectful deference to those above, engaging harmoniously with peers and serving as an upstanding exemplar to youth.

Respectful deference, however, does not imply walking in lockstep with a leader who discharges his duties without regard for others, either locally or globally. On this, Confucius is unequivocally clear in The Analects: “To see what is appropriate to do, and not to do it, is cowardice” (2:24). Using the Confucian compass, Rosemont concluded, “in the contemporary world free and rational autonomous individuals hinder the achievement of social justice, even in purportedly democratic societies” (pg.80). Could we not then as a nation a mere 200 years old do any better than to sit at the feet of the “Master” for the wise counsel that has guided Chinese civilization for more than two millennia and “has probably seen to the feeding and housing of more human beings than any other in human history.” (pg.121)

Purchasing information: https://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/against-individualism-henry-rosemont-jr/1120878497?ean=9780739199824



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MOMA Itemizes Fashion

“Fashion is the armor to survive the reality of everyday life.” ~Bill Cunningham, late longtime NY Times fashion photographer .


I think Bill would have enthusiastically embraced “ITEMS: Is Fashion Modern?” the Museum of Modern Art’s current exhibition that examines selected iconic “armor” items as stand-alone objects to demonstrate their evolution such as the power icon of the 20th century—the proverbial three-piece suit. Once the mainstay of the executive boardroom it later morphed into the ‘zoot suit’ worn by blacks and Hispanics during the Jazz Age’s heyday. As the numbers of women advanced in the corporate world, the transgendered suit became both her fashion staple and pièce de résistance of power especially in the hands of designers such as Donna Karan’s soft-power Seven Easy Pieces. If you didn’t know initially Apple’s mastermind Steve Jobs, you could have been forgiven of overlooking the most powerful executive in the world who more resembled a Beat Generation holdover famously wearing  the same black mock turtleneck, blue jeans and New Balance sneakers every day. What signals power today? …the winner is none other than the ubiquitous white T-shirt—paired with a hoodie and jeans even in the boardroom—that had a former life of humbler beginnings being worn by early 20th century laborers and later the defining garb of defiant teens rebelling against conformist 1950s (think “Rebel without a Cause”).

What was eye-opening for this viewer that in taking the long view, MOMA’s exhibit in an even way gives the uneven history of the ubiquitous T-shirt—its cotton harvested by black slaves, its cutting and sewing and assemblage by low-paid laborers, at home and abroad, and its environmental footprint throughout its lifecycle.

IMG_4941The People’s Studio

The brilliance of MOMA is the direction of current education director, Wendy Woon, in re-creating its People’s Studio, an all out hands-on studio, the brainchild of MOMA’s first educator, Vincent D’Amico.  It is on a separate floor from the actual exhibit but is not to be missed for its sense of inventive and creative community. However, don’t overlook another community forming at the exhibit terminus–a  congregative space to view colorful wall graphs as a score card of sorts for the fashion industry related to The UN ‘s Sustainable Development Goals. Yes, folks are looking at their devices. Yet there is also an element as a space once-removed from live theater, at least to me, what Ayad Akhtar, Pakistani-American playwright defines as an ‘antidote’ to digital dehumanization. Akhtar challenges American individualism by pointing out that “we herding animals are programmed at some very profound level to think and feel as one.” In the mix with my fellow viewers  I did have a sense of oneness with a museum audience. Perhaps a stretch of live theater oneness that Akhtar describes but still….

NYTimes, Sunday December 31, 2017. Arts, page 5.


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A Primer on Nobility and Civility

Summer 2017 saw the passing of two Asian scholars–giants in their field–Wm. Theordore de Bary and Henry Rosemont, Jr. Below is an excerpt from the preface of de Bary’s 2014 book Nobility and Civility : Asian Ideals of Leadership and the Common Good that should be required reading for those in leadership and those conservatives who recently back-pedaled on once staunchly held moral values that they are required of a religious leader and not a world leader.

Any serious education should prepare one to understand the ultimate claims made not only by Muslim suicide bombers but also by their Hindu and Buddhist counterparts, as well as the Japanese samurai warriors or the suicide pilots Mishima Yukio wrote about. It is a lot to do, but this book tries to make a start at sorting out some of the key civilizational issues. From this learning process we may hope to understand the appeal of different concepts of nobility as shared human ideals, the special attractiveness and lurking dangers these can hold for extreme forms of communalism and nationalism, and the civilities that in the longer run have helped to contain these dangers. On this basis we may also realize that there need be no inevitable clash of civilizations from irreducible cultural antagonisms but that from these diverse cultural and social traditions resources can be drawn on to cope with the challenges of environmental degradation, unrestrained economic competition, vicious political chauvinisms, and, more fundamentally, the deeper moral collapse and cultural despair that threaten world civilization in the twenty-first century…these features of society cannot be controlled simply by the charismatic force of noble individuals alone. But in early times the example of the truly noble leader was recognized as crucial to the restraint and containment of violence, insofar as that example spoke to the conscience of all, not just to the ruling elite. If I use the word “conscience” here, regardless of how human consciousnesses may have differed from age to age and place to place, it is because in the midst of cultural differences these concerns are recognized also as constants in human life, and are in some sense shared— as indeed common “human” concerns. Confucius spoke of this selfawareness as a sense of shame or as its corollary, a sense of self-respect, to which the ruler, if he be truly a leader, must appeal if he is not to rely on coercive means that eventually undo themselves. For Confucius this concept of true nobility and genuine leadership was a high calling. He did not underestimate the demands it laid on the educated person or man of learning who also bore the burden of leadership in society. In the Analects, he calls on the class of well-bred aristocrats known as shi in ancient China (somewhat like the knights or gentlemen of the medieval West) to put on the shining armor of moral virtue and public learning. It is said: “The shi must be stout-hearted and enduring, for his burden is heavy and his Way is long.

Humaneness is the burden he takes upon himself. Is it not heavy? Only in death does his Way come to an end. Is it not long?” (Analects 8:7). If today the concept of the public intellectual is upheld in contrast to the academician isolated in an ivory tower, we may draw some lessons, and possibly some inspiration, from the Asian ideals that survive, not as abstract ivory- tower ideals, but as having endured something of the long, conflicted struggle Confucius foresaw for the scholar “stout of heart” and “enduring” in the Way. Although one may well question whether such ideals can be taken as universals or eternal verities, one may still recognize the cases cited here as inspired attempts to grapple with perennial issues or persistent human dilemmas, worthy of our consideration even now in their very conflicted contexts. The “globalization” much talked about today is a case in point. Most often it refers to the persistent trend toward the unification of the world economy and the homogenization of culture in response to a spreading technology. But the universalization of values and standards of culture has been a feature of expanding civilizations since the dawn of history, and the problems attendant upon it (as well as the response to these) offer a perspective on the dilemmas of our own era.

If modernization is not simply to mean the extension to other peoples, in an unquestioned and uncritical way, of current trends in the West, then the globalization of knowledge must take into account the values and experiences of other major civilizations. Today, unfortunately, these values are poorly understood even in their original settings or homelands, because of the long disruption of native traditions and the radical reorientation of the educated leadership to other immediate goals or European ideologies. Generally speaking, such classic values have been known in modern times, if at all, through the revered classics and scriptures of major traditions, but their relevance and adaptability to modern circumstances remains unclear if these values are conceived simply in the abstract, without any understanding of the difficulties experienced historically in applying or practicing them. In other words, traditional values need to be understood as historically evolving, and in that process as marked by much ambiguity and contestation— contestation that has arisen especially in multicultural encounters, wherein ideals are almost always compromised by messy human complications.

The Asian ideals discussed here are thus seen as conflicted human values, conflicted in the same sense as in my earlier book, The Trouble with Confucianism. This book, which ranges widely over several civilizations and historical eras, can only be suggestive of how evolving concepts of leadership (“nobility”) and public morality (“civility”) in several Asian traditions may contribute to the humanizing of the current globalization process. It does not propose exact prescriptions for present problems, but may serve the purpose of general education in the face of the modern rush to find technical solutions, ready at hand but often oversimplified, to our current dilemmas. Without an awareness of people’s past experience in the implementation of their own ideal values, it will be difficult to see how anyone could be expected to recognize and cope with similar problems in the present. And unless some such awareness becomes part of the education of all, one can expect that the globalizing process may well be degrading, dehumanizing, and destructive of the earth, beyond anything seen in the past. My treatment of this theme includes reflections on the views expressed in classic texts of the major Asian traditions in India, China, and Japan. (Preface x-xi)

De Bary, Wm. Theodore. Nobility and Civility : Asian Ideals of Leadership and the Common Good. Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press, 2004. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 14 October 2014.Copyright © 2004. Harvard University Press. All rights reserved.


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